• Dr Che Puteh Osman

SIRI 6: KANDUNGAN CAMPHOR DALAM ESSENTIAL OIL

Updated: May 19, 2019


Camphor merupakan sejenis sebatian kimia semulajadi yang banyak ditemui dalam essential oil. Sesetengah essential oil mengandungi sedikit sahaja camphor, dan kandungan mereka dalam essential oil adalah tidak signifikan.


Camphor adalah sejenis monoterpene beroksigen. Is berwarna putih dan putih jernih dengan bau yang kuat. Camphor boleh dikesan dalam darah seawal 20 minit jika tertelan. Ia juga boleh memasuki salur darah melalui sedutan dan melalui kulit. Camphor menyebabkan iritasi pada sistem pencernaan dan sistem saraf utama jika terlebih dos dan menyebabkan muntah-muntah, kekejangan dan sawan [1]. Edible camphor memberikan kesan oksidatif kepada tisu dalam kajian ke atas tikus [2]



Terdapat beberapa laporan kes kesan advers penggunaan bahan mengandungi camphor kepada kanak-kanak [3,4] Terdapat laporan kes sawan kerana penggunaan minyak sage pada bayi berusia 33 hari [5] dan minyak thuja ke atas bayi berusia 7 bukan [6] disebabkan kehadiran camphor yang tinggi di dalam minyak tersebut. Terdapat banyak lagi laporan keracunan camphor yang tidak dapat dibincangkan dalam ruangan yang terhad ini. Camphor dilaporkan menyebabkan sawan serendah 30 mg per kg berat badan bagi orang dewasa. FDA mencadangkan penggunaan selamat produk mengandungi camphor hedaklah di bawah 11% bagi orang dewasa [7]. Pada pendapat peribadi penulis, elakkan sebarang produk mengandungi camphor sebelum bayi mencapai usia 2 tahun dan pastikan produk mengandungi camphor kurang dari 11% apabila berusia lebih 2 tahun.


Walaupun pokok yang menghasilkan essential oil adalah dari spesis tumbuhan yang sama, kandungan camphor adalah berbeza-beza mengikut lokaliti. Contohnya, di tanam di negara berbeza, sumber tanah dan air berbeza, cahaya matahari yang diterima dan pada bulan bilakah ia dituai. Untuk essential oil yang diketahui mengandungi camphor, maklumat analisis kimia adalah perlu bagi memastikan berapakan kandungan camphor pada satu-satu batch pengeluaran.


Berikut saya senaraikan beberapa essential oil yang mengandungi camphor melebihi 10% dalam essential oil yang tidak dicairkan. Kandungan essential oil yang dicairkan bergantung kepada peratusan pencairan.


  1. Thuja (Tetraclinis articulata) = daun segar (1.7%), daun kering (20.1%) [8]

  2. Sage (Salvia officinalis) = 23.76% [9], 24.95 [10] 13.7-37.8% [11] , 15.9-16.2% [12]

  3. Peppermint (Mentha pipertia) = 20.64% [13]

  4. Moroccan chamomile (Cladanthus mixtus) = 21.36 % [14]

  5. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) = 13.55-18.13 % (Tunisia) [15] , 15.65% (Spain) [10] , 26 % [16] , 41-53% (Morocco) [17] , 34.81% (Cuba)[18] , 13-31% (Hungary) [19]

  6. American basil (Ocimum americanum) = 51.4-38.9% [20-21]

  7. Black cumin (Bunium persicum) = 10.43% [22]

  8. Cinnamomum camphors (L.) Nees = 68.3 % [23]

  9. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) = 15% [24]

  10. Lavender (Lavendula spp) = 25% (France), 13.7 % (Spain) [25]

  11. Kapur barus/camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) = daun (18.5%), batang (13.2%) [26] 71.2 % [27]

  12. Spanish sage (Salvia lavandifolia) = 39% [28]

  13. Tagoltamte (Salvia aucheri Boiss. var. mesatlantica Maire) = 49-51% (Morocco) [29]

  14. Bunga kekwa (Chrysanthemum coronarium ) = 25% [30]

  15. Lavender cotton (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) = 11.7 % [31]

  16. Achillea cretica = 67.5-38.9% [32]

  17. Achillea millefolium L = 19.2 % [33]

  18. Achillea tenuifolia Lam = 36.9 % [34]

  19. White wormwood (Artemisia Herba alba) = 15.96% [35]

  20. Common worm wood (Artemisia absinthum) = (21.2-28.3%) [36]


Che Puteh Osman

PhD (Natural Product Chemistry)


Rujukan:


[1] Siegel, E.; Wason, S., Camphor Toxicity. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1986, 33 (2), 375-379.


[2] Somade, O. T.; Adeniji, K. D.; Adesina, A.-R. A.; Olurinde, O. J., Oral acute toxicity study as well as tissues oxidative stress and histopathological disorders in edible camphor administered rats. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 2017, 69 (2), 99-108.


[3] Narayan, S.; Singh, N., Camphor poisoning—An unusual cause of seizure. Medical Journal, Armed Forces India 2012, 68 (3), 252-253.


[4] Michiels, E. A.; Mazor, S. S., Toddler With Seizures Due to Ingesting Camphor at an Indian Celebration. Pediatric Emergency Care 2010, 26 (8), 574-575.


[5] Halicioglu, O.; Astarcioglu, G.; Yaprak, I.; Aydinlioglu, H., Toxicity of Salvia officinalis in a Newborn and a Child: An Alarming Report. Pediatric Neurology 2011, 45 (4), 259-260.


[6] Stafstrom, C. E., Seizures in a 7-Month-Old Child After Exposure to the Essential Plant Oil Thuja. Pediatric Neurology 2007, 37 (6), 446-448.


[7] Camphor Revisited: Focus on Toxicity. Pediatrics 1994, 94 (1), 127-128.


[8] Bahri, F.; Romane, A.; Höferl, M.; Wanner, J.; Schmidt, E.; Jirovetz, L., Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Algerian Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2016, 28 (1), 42-48.


[9] lie, C.; Golet, I.; Craciunescu, M.; Hogea, E.; Popescu, R.; Horhat, F. G., Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of western romanian salvia officinalis. Revista de Chimie 2016, 67 (1), 131-133.


[10] Viuda-Martos, M.; Ruíz-Navajas, Y.; Fernández-López, J.; Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., Chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from some spices widely used in Mediterranean Region. Acta Chimica Slovenica 2007, 54 (4), 921-926.


[11] Asllani, U., Chemical composition of albanian sage oil (salvia officinalis L.). Journal of Essential Oil Research 2000, 12 (1), 79-84.


[12] Vera, R. R.; Chane-Ming, J.; Fraisse, D. J., Chemical composition of the essential oil of sage (salvia officinalis L.) from reunion Island. Journal of Essential Oil Research 1999, 11 (4), 399-402.


[13] Tomescu, A.; Sumalan, R. M.; Pop, G.; Alexa, E.; Poiana, M. A.; Copolovici, D. M.; Mihai, C. S. S.; Negrea, M.; Galuscan, A., Chemical composition and protective antifugal activity of Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against Fusarium graminearum Spp. Revista de Chimie 2015, 66 (7), 1027-1030.


[14] Ainane, T.; Elkouali, M.; Ainane, A.; Talbi, M., Moroccan traditional fragrance based essential oils: Preparation, composition and chemical identification. Der Pharma Chemica 2014, 6 (6), 84-89.


[15] Hcini, K.; Sotomayor, J. A.; Jordan, M. J.; Bouzid, S., Chemical composition of the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) of Tunisian origin. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2013, 25 (5), 2601-2603.


[16] Porte, A.; de O.Godoy, R. L.; Lopes, D.; Koketsu, M.; Gonçalves, S. L.; Torquilho, H. S., Essential oil of rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) from rio de janeiro, Brazil. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2000, 12 (5), 577-580.


[17] Elamrani, A.; Zrira, S.; Benjilali, B.; Berrada, M., A study of moroccan rosemary oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2000, 12 (4), 487-495.


[18] Boutekedjiret, C.; Bentahar, F.; Belabbes, R.; Bessiere, J. M., The essential oil from rosmarinus officinalis L. in Algeria. Journal of Essential Oil Research 1998, 10 (6), 680-682.


[19] Domokos, J.; Héthelyi, É.; Pálinkás, J.; Szirmai, S.; Tulok, M. H., Essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) of hungarian origin. Journal of Essential Oil Research 1997, 9 (1), 41-45.


[20] Raina, A. P.; Misra, R. C., Chemo-divergence in essential oil composition among germplasm collection of five Ocimum species from eastern coastal plains of India. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2018, 30 (1), 47-55.


[21] Verma, R. S.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, P.; Kuppusamy, B.; Padalia, R. C.; Sundaresan, V., Essential oil composition of four Ocimum spp. from the Peninsular India. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2016, 28 (1), 35-41.


[22] Talei, G. R.; Mosavi, Z., Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Bunium persicum from west of iran. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2009, 21 (6), 4749-4754.


[23] Stubbs, B. J.; Brushett, D., Leaf oil of cinnamomum camphors (l.) nees and eberm. from eastern Australia. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2001, 13 (1), 51-54.


[24] Chalchat, J. C.; Valade, I., Chemical Composition of Leaf Oils of Cinnamomum from Madagascar: C. Zeylanicum Blume, C. camphora L., C. fragrans Baillon and C. Angustifolium. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2000, 12 (5), 537-540.


[25] Tomi, K.; Kitao, M.; Murakami, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Hayashi, T., Classification of lavender essential oils: sedative effects of Lavandula oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2018, 30 (1), 56-68.


[26] Jiang, H.; Wang, J.; Song, L.; Cao, X.; Yao, X.; Tang, F.; Yue, Y., Gc×Gc-tofms analysis of essential oils composition from leaves, twigs and seeds of cinnamomum camphora l. presl and their insecticidal and repellent activities. Molecules 2016, 21 (4).


[27] Pino, J. A.; Fuentes, V., Leaf Oil of cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl. From Cuba. Journal of Essential Oil Research 1998, 10 (5), 531-532


[28] Foray, L.; Bertrand, C.; Pinguet, F.; Soulier, M.; Astre, C.; Marion, C.; Pélissier, Y.; Bessière, J. M., In vitro cytotoxic activity of three essential oils from salvia species. Journal of Essential Oil Research 1999, 11 (4), 522-526.


[29] Znini, M.; Majidi, L.; Desjobert, J. M.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J., GC-MS analysis and comparison of volatile compounds of Salvia aucheri Boiss. var. mesatlantica Maire., obtained by hydrodistillation and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Acta Chromatographica 2014, 26 (3), 495-505.


[30] Polatoğlu, K.; Karakoç, Ö. C.; Demirci, B.; Başer, K. H. C., Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of edible garland (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) essential oil against the granary pest Sitophilus granarius L. (Coleoptera). Journal of Essential Oil Research 2018, 30 (2), 120-130


[31] Demirci, B.; Özek, T.; Baser, K. H. C., Chemical composition of santolina chamaecyparissus L. Essential oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2000, 12 (5), 625-627.


[32] Hichri, F.; Omri, A.; Hossan, A. S. M.; Flamini, G.; Ben Jannet, H., Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the Tunisian Achillea cretica L. essential oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2018, 30 (2), 105-112.


[33] Vidic, D.; Ćavar Zeljković, S.; Dizdar, M.; Maksimović, M., Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of four Asteraceae species from Bosnia. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2016, 28 (5), 445-457.


[34] Aghjani, Z.; Masoudi, S.; Rustaiyan, A., Composition of the essential oil from flowers of achillea tenuifolia Lam. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2000, 12 (6), 723-724.


[35] Goudjil, M. B.; Ladjel, S.; Bencheikh, S. E.; Hammoya, F.; Bensaci, M. B.; Zighmi, S.; Mehani, M., Bioactivity of Artemisia Herba alba essential oil against plant pathogenic fungi. Der Pharma Chemica 2016, 8 (3), 46-52.


[36] Asfaw, N.; Demissew, S., Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 2015, 29 (1), 123-128.



Blog ini membawakan artikel ilmiah tentang tumbuhan dan sebatian kimia semulajadi dalam bahasa yang mudah difahami.